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 Gjenetika

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Numri i postimeve : 211
Registration date : 18/08/2007

MesazhTitulli: Gjenetika   Thu Sep 06, 2007 5:16 pm

Gjenetika


[size=9]Cod. B17012005


Gjenetika eshte nje shkence qe nuk ka me shume se 100 vjet qe i ka
nisjet e veta po edhe pse kaq e re ka zene nje vend mjaft te
rendesishem ne jeten tone te perditshme duke filluar qe nga ana
mjeksore si psh terapite e semundjeve te ndryshme e deri te perdorimi i
gjenetikes ne raste te ndryshme kriminalistike.Ta marresh holle holle,
gjenetika eshte nje shkence mikroscopike sepse merret pak a shume me
materialin qe ndodhet ne berthamat e qelizave permasat e te cilave
shkojne ne te dhjetrat e micronit(10^-7).

Secili nga ne e ka degjuar se ne berthamat e qelizave ka material
gjenetik i cili kryen funksione te shumta ne trupin e njeriut.Me
miliona operacione cdo sekond kane nevoje per materialin gjenetik.

Ne qofte se do te japim disa numra per trupin e njeriut mund te themi
se jemi te perbere nga rreth 65 mije miliarde qeliza dhe secila prej
ketyre ka ne berthamat e tyre 1.8 meter ADN.Kjo ADN ka rreth 3 miliard
nukleotide.ky material perdoret nga cdo qelize per te jetuar ose te
themi me mire per te mbijetuar.

Qelizat e kuqe te gjakur qe e heqin berthamen qe te kene sa me shume
hapesire per te ushtruar funksionet e tyre kane nje jetegjatesi rreth
120 dite nga paaftesija per te rinovuar strukturat e veta te
brendshme.Cdo qelize qe jeton duhet te kete te njejtin material
gjenetik qe te mund te ece perpara.Edhe vdekja e nje qelize me ane te
procedurave te ndryshme sic eshte apoptoze ose ndryshe sic quhet
ndryshe "vdekje e programuar" ka nevoje per materialin gjenetik.



THIS IS FOR DARKE:The genetic is a new science(nearly 100 year
age)but even though it is so young it has taken an important place in
our daily life influencing it in every aspect starting from the
medicine(terapies of diseases)up to the usage of genetics in crime
scene investigation.The genetic is a microscopic science becuose its
main object is a tiny strucutre called nucleus inside the cell,whose
dimensions go up to 10^-7 meter(micron).

Everyone of us has heard that these nucleus contain the genetic
material that executes a lot of functions in the human body.Millions of
function performed in every second need its help.and to give some
numbers there are nearly 65.000.000.000.000 cells in our body and in
every cell there is 1.8 meter of DNA.This DNA is composed of nearly 3
billion nucleotides.This material is used by every cell to live or
better say to survive.

The best example are the red blood cells that do not have the nucleus
and they have a life of only 120 days becouse they cannot reproduce
their proteins in order to live.Every cell in the human body must have
the same genetic materila in order to perform its functions and not be
considered as a foreign cell and attached by the immunitary system or
die itself in a process called apoptosis or in poor words programmed(or
self induced) death(self destruction).Bot this is another part of the
story that i'm goin to explain....



Nese marrim parasysh qe cdo sekond trupi i njeriut prodhon rreth 2
milion qeliza gjaku dhe se po kaq qeliza shkaterrohen,ose qe
jetegjatesia e qelizave te bardha eshte shume i shkurter dhe se here
pas here duhet te zevendesohen dhe se cdo sekond trupi i njeriut duhet
te jete ne gjendje ti beje balle mikroorganizmave te ndryshem qe mund
ta sulmojne dhe se sa dhjetra lloje hormonesh qe duhet te prodhohen cdo
sekond qe ta mbajne trupin ne nje ekuiliber te mahnitshem do ta
kuptonim me mire se sa rendesi ka ajo strukture e vogel brenda cdo
qelize.Ka raste qe mjafton nje gabim ne ato 3 miliard baza,sic ndodh ne
disa semundje gjenetike dhe trupi i njeriut mund te shkoje drejt
vdekjes.

Keto jane si tip hyrjeje per sa i perket gjerave qe eshte ne gjendje te
beje materiali gjenetik ne trupin e njeriut.Ky material gjenetik qe
quhet ADN(acidi deoksiribonukleik)ose ARN(acid ribonukleik).Keto dy
forma ndryshojne njeri nga tjetri per llojin e sheqerit ose me mire
tethemi per nga grupi qe eshte i vendosur te karboni 2 i sheqerit dhe
per nga llojet e bazave te azotuara(tek arn ka uracil ne vend te
timines).



Even the apoptosis needs the DNA functions to do the process
correctly.If we consider that in every second more than 2 million red
blood cells are produced and the same amount is detroyed,or that the
white blood cells life is really short(some are 7 days,some more and
some less)and they have to get replaced continuously and that in every
second billion of organisms attach the human body and try to cause
diseases,while the body tries to stop this and keep the equilibrium
inside(don't forget that there are bacteria in the intestine that are
important for the digestion)we can immagine the importance of our DNA
and the importance of that small structure in the cell called
nucleus.Only 1 mistake in 3 billion of nucleotides is enough to cause
mortal diseases like the cystis fibrosis or a kind of anemia where 1
nucleotide is changed(mediterrian anemia)and the person may go toward
death.1 mistake and no more is enough.

The things I said up to now are just an introduction to the most
amazing structure in our human body that is called DNA(deoxyribonucleic
acid)or RNA(ribonucleic acid).These two forms differ one from another
just for the structure of the sugar that form the scheleton of the
nucleotide or better say only for the group that is attached to the
second carbon and for the bases attached(in RNA we have uracil instead
of thymine)...


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